This state-of-the-art Handbook brings together important mathematics education research that makes a difference in both theory and practice--research that: *anticipates problems and needed knowledge before they become impediments to progress; *interprets future-oriented problems into researchable issues; *presents the implications of research and theory development in forms that are useful to practitioners and policymakers; and *facilitates the development of research communities to focus on neglected priorities or strategic opportunities. The volume represents a genuine attempt by contributors from around the world to advance the discipline, rather than simply review what has been done and what exists. The Handbook was developed in response to a number of major global catalysts for change, including the impact of national and international mathematics comparative assessment studies; the social, cultural, economic, and political influences on mathematics education and research; the influence of progressively sophisticated and available technology; and the increasing globalization of mathematics education and research. From these catalysts have emerged specific priority themes and issues for mathematics education research in the 21st century. Three key themes were identified for attention in this volume: *life-long democratic access to powerful mathematical ideas; *advances in research methodologies; and *influences of advanced technologies. Each of these themes is examined in terms of learners, teachers, and learning contexts, with theory development as an important component of all these aspects. Dynamic and forward looking, the Handbook of International Research in Mathematics Education is distinguished by its focus on new and emerging theoretical models, perspectives, and research methodologies; its uniformly high standard of scholarship; and its emphasis on the international nature of mathematics education research. It is an essential volume for all researchers, professionals, and students interested in mathematics education research in particular and, more generally, in international developments and future directions in the broad field of educational research.English, Lyn D. is the author of 'Handbook of International Research in Mathematics Education' with ISBN 9780805842050 and ISBN 0805842055.