This book examines the remarkable decline of mortality in Europe which began in the 19th century and continued in an uninterrupted fashion, into the early 20th century. During this period there was almost a simultaneous decline in both fertility and mortality in Europe which has long since fascinated historians and demographers. Though transition of fertility is now understood, the same cannot be said for mortality, despite its importance. The transition of mortality between 1870 and 1920 had profound effects for European and American societies. This volume brings to light the different positions held by scholars on such strategic issues as nutrition, income levels and living standards, public health, social organization, and scientific advances. This study will be of particular interest to demographers, social and economic historians, epidemiologists, and postgraduate and advanced undergraduate students of these subjects.Schofield, Roger S. is the author of 'Decline of Mortality in Europe' with ISBN 9780198283287 and ISBN 0198283288.